Aims: To compare SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 agonists on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, treatment persistence/discontinuation, healthcare utilization and costs.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study utilized medical and pharmacy claims to identify new SGLT2 inhibitor or GLP-1 agonist users from January 2015 to June 2017. A total of 5,507 patients were included in each treatment group after 1:1 propensity score matching. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare CV outcomes and treatment discontinuation. Healthcare utilization and costs were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test.
Results: No differences in the primary composite CV outcome or secondary CV outcome were observed. Patients using GLP-1 agonists were more likely to discontinue treatment (hazard ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.21) and more likely to have an inpatient hospitalization (14.4% vs. 11.9%, P < 0.001) or emergency department visit (27.4% vs. 23.5%, P < 0.001) compared to patients on SGLT2 inhibitors. The average per-person per-month cost difference was +$179 for total cost (P < 0.001), +$70 for medical cost (P < 0.001) and +$108 for pharmacy cost (P < 0.001) for GLP-1 agonists compared to SGLT2 inhibitors.
Conclusions: Differences in composite CV outcomes were not established. However, other findings that favored SGLT2 inhibitors should be weighed against the known risks associated with this therapeutic class.